An internet "troll" is someone who harasses others in response to other peoples' opinions or even just their participation online.
Trolling happens in all corners of the internet and became a tool (or a weapon) during the 2016 presidential campaign. Most trolling occurs on social networking sites, like Twitter and Facebook, but trolls also harass people in the comment sections of blogs and websites. People get trolled on gaming sites, and even on dating sites, so the reality is that almost anyone with a significant online presence can be targeted by a troll. Some social media sites have responded to the scourge by bolstering policies dealing with abusive content.
Most trolls are not media pariahs and most people targeted by them do not have the platform of a widely-read journalist or movie star. This isn't to say that if you find yourself at the receiving end of a troll campaign, you are necessarily helpless.
You can respond in one or more ways to a troll, depending on the situation. Some trolls are simply annoying jerks who continually hover like a gnat in your face. Some trolls make threats but are not actually dangerous. A few are stalkers and predators who intend harm. How you choose to respond depends on the nature of the trolling, the type of internet site on which it occurs, and the level of threat presented.
While the scope of relevant criminal and civil laws is somewhat limited, there are some legal remedies that you can turn to if you are trolled.
The civil remedies available to a victim of an online troll vary from state to state. For more information, see Can a Cyberbullying Victim Sue for Future Damages?
If a troll threatens physical violence or reveals private information that may put you at risk of harm, contact the cops.
And, if someone is posting intimate images of you without your consent, see Revenge Porn: Laws & Penalties, as well as our state-specific articles on revenge porn laws in your state.
A troll may raise a First Amendment free speech defense to criminal prosecution for online comments. Such a defense is more likely to succeed when the object of the harassment is a public figure, rather than someone who has not entered the public arena.
Efforts to sue or prosecute online service providers will likely come up against protections for those entities embedded in the Communications Decency Act, which exempts the providers from liability for material posted by others. (For more information on this Act, see When Is an ISP Liable for the Acts of Its Subscribers?)
In addition to any legal options that a person targeted by a troll may have, non-legal responses include the following.
One way to take control of what's written about you is to present your online self on your own terms—on your own website or blog. You can literally write the rules of engagement on your own site. An effective anti-harassment comment policy includes:
Check the online tools that can help you fight trolls on your own site, such as "stealth banning" (blocks trolls or spammers) and SMC4 software (analyzes inbound communication), among others.
Most trolls are just low-risk blowhards. Mudslinging is part of public engagement and the internet is no exception—vigorous give-and-take is the point of the "marketplace of ideas." Not all aggressive dissent or criticism is trolling, but there is no bright line. Be aware that you assume some risk of push-back when you enter the public cybersphere.