The great majority of criminal prosecutions are state prosecutions, for violations of state law, in state court. However, just are there are state laws against engaging in criminal behavior, there are also federal criminal laws, passed by Congress. At least in theory, federal criminal laws are tied to some federal or national issue, such as interstate trafficking in contraband, federal tax fraud, mail fraud, or crimes committed on federal property. Some criminal acts are crimes onlyunder federal law. But many criminal acts, such as bank robbery, are crimes under both federal and state law and may be prosecuted in either federal or state court.
Most crimes that come to mind – murder, robbery, burglary, arson, theft, and rape – are violations of state law; state legislators have used their general police power to regulate the conduct and the state has jurisdiction (the power to decide the case).
For more information on particular crimes, see Common Crimes: Laws & Penalties.
There are fewer classes of federal crimes because while state lawmakers can pass just about any law, as long as it is constitutional, federal lawmakers can pass laws onlywhere there is some federal or national interest at stake. For example, counterfeiting is a federal offense because it is the federal government’s duty to print money. In practice, federal interest is very broadly defined. The federal government has jurisdiction over the following crimes:
- Any crime that takes place on federal land or involves federal officers, such as a murder in a national forest or on an Indian reservation, a theft on a military base, or an assault against a Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) agent,
- A crime where the defendant crosses state lines, for example, a person who takes a kidnapping victim from Oregon to Nevada,
- A crime where the criminal conduct crosses state lines, for example, an Internet fraud scheme the has victims and perpetrators in multiple states, and
- Immigration and customs violations, such as importing child pornography or international human trafficking.
Differences in State and Federal Procedure
There are many differences in state and federal criminal prosecutions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the president. Even state court judges who are appointed by the governor must sit for re-election. Federal crimes are prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorneys and investigated by federal officers, such as FBI or DEA agents. State crimes are investigated by county sheriffs, state agents, or local police officers, and prosecuted by state district attorneys or city attorneys. As a very general rule, because there are far fewer federal prosecutions, cases in federal court can take longer to resolve.
For information on the difference between the state and federal court systems, see State vs. Federal Criminal Prosecutions.
Prosecutions in Both State and Federal Court
Although it does not happen very often, there are no legal bars to prosecution in both state and federal court for the same criminal act if it violates both state and federal law. What about the Double Jeopardy Clause? While the constitutional prohibition against double jeopardy usually bars being tried twice for the same crime, there is a “separate sovereign” exception. Since the state and federal governments are separate, the Double Jeopardy Clause does not apply. For example, in 1992, a jury in California state court acquitted four Los Angeles Police Department officers of beating Rodney King at a traffic stop. Late, federal prosecutors charged the officers with violating King’s constitutional rights and two officers were convicted. Nonetheless, as a practical matter, dual prosecutions like this are rare, since resources at both the state and federal level are precious.
Like state crimes, the penalties for federal crimes vary. There are advisory federal sentencing guidelines, and the vast majority of federal judges follow the guidelines when sentencing defendants. As a general rule, federal penalties are longer that state penalties for similar crimes. In particular, federal drug crimes carry harsh mandatory minimum sentences. People convicted of federal crimes and sentenced to prison will go to federal prison, rather then state prison.
For more information on penalties for state crimes, see Classification of Crimes: Felonies & Misdemeanors.
Obtaining Legal Assistance
If you are charged with or under investigation for a federal or state crime, you should talk to an attorney. For federal charges, it is important to see an attorney with experience representing people in federal court, as the rules that apply in federal court are very different from those in state court. Whenever you face criminal charges, you need an attorney who has experience defending those types of cases in the same court in which are you are facing charges. Whether in state or federal court, an attorney can help you navigate the criminal justice system and obtain the best possible outcome in your case.